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Top 15 JavaScript Frameworks For 2024

We will explore 15 popular JavaScript frameworks for both frontend and backend.
Aagam Vadecha

Aagam Vadecha

Apr 10, 2024
Top 15 JavaScript Frameworks For 2024

#Why do we need JavaScript Frameworks?

JavaScript is the most widely used technology for developing web applications. It can be used on both frontend and backend for building full-stack applications. Many JavaScript frameworks simplify and streamline the development process.

These frameworks provide abstractions for routine development tasks, standardize formats for writing code - basically, what piece of code should go where in any production project, and use libraries built using the best practices.

Additionally, for frontend applications, these frameworks provide abstractions for different types of rendering, routing, and state management. They also ensure cross-browser compatibility. All in all, without these frameworks, developers would have to code everything from scratch, and it would take a lot of extra time and effort to build web applications.

In this article, we will explore various popular JavaScript frameworks for both frontend and backend.

#Frontend Frameworks


GitHub Link: React

JaveScript Framework - React

React is a JavaScript library for building frontend applications.

React is not a production framework in itself and is more of a library. It enables developers to write reusable declarative UI components, manage data states, and provide interactivity. All of this would take a lot of time and effort if developers were to do it with pure HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

React uses a virtual DOM that reduces the re-render time for views when the state changes and makes it highly performant. React can be used as a base for developing web or mobile applications.

Some of the key features of React are as follows:

Declarative Components - Declarative User Interfaces make creating interactive and dynamic React components easy.

Virtual Dom - React uses a Virtual DOM to manage changes to the state and the actual DOM.

JSX - React provides JSX, a syntax extension for JavaScript that lets you write HTM-like markup inside a JavaScript file.

Cross Platform - The same concepts of React can be applied while building mobile applications using React Native.

Pros and Cons:

Largest developer community and ecosystem of tools and integrations.Only a library for the view layer, we need to add more libraries for routing, state management, and other features.
Reusable Declarative UI Components.The learning curve is steeper compared to frameworks like Vue.js.
Virtual DOM improves performance, especially for complex applications.Not SEO Friendly, Server side rendering is difficult to achieve without a proper framework like Next.js.
React can be used with various architectures and integrates well with other libraries.

A few popular websites using React in production:


GitHub Link: Next.js

JaveScript Framework - Next.js

Next.js is a battle-tested, production framework for React which is widely used for building full-stack web applications. Developers use the same React Components to build user interfaces, while Next.js supports additional features and optimizations.

Next.js provides a more structured approach to building React applications and standardizes how things should be done. Next.js also abstracts and automatically configures tooling needed for React, like compiling, bundling, and more. This allows developers to focus on building the application instead of spending time with configuration.

Some of the key features of Next.js are as follows:

Rendering - Next.js facilitates client-side and server-side rendering through Client and Server Components.

Data Fetching - Simplifies data fetching using async/await within Server Components.

Routing - Built-in file-system based router that supports nested routing, layouts, error handling, and more.

TypeScript - Next.js provides typescript support out of the box.

Optimizations - Next.js optimizes static content like Images, Fonts, and Scripts. This improves the User Experience and applications Core Web Vitals.

Styling - Supports various styling methods, including CSS Modules, Tailwind CSS, CSS-in-JS, and more.

Pros and cons:

Support different types of rendering - Client-side Rendering, Server-side Rendering, and Static Site Generation.Limited flexibility compared to custom setups
File-system based routingMight be an overkill for small applications.
SEO Friendly
Automatic code splitting and route prefetching
Built-in API routes for backend integration

A few popular websites using Next.js in production:


GitHub Link: Gatsby

JaveScript Framework - Gatsby

Gatsby is a popular open-source JavaScript framework based on React that can be used to build websites and web applications.

Gatsby is known for its powerful combination of static site generation, GraphQL data layer, and rich developer experience. It enables developers to create blazing-fast websites with optimal performance and SEO. Gatsby has a rich ecosystem of integration plugins and starter templates.

Some of the key features of Gatsby are as follows:

Static Site Generation (SSG) - Gatsby generates static HTML files at build time, enabling fast initial page loads and improved performance.

GraphQL Data Layer - Gatsby uses GraphQL to query and manage data, making data fetching efficient and flexible.

Plugins - Gatsby has a rich ecosystem of drop-in functionality available via plugins, from CMS integrations to image optimizations.

Pros and cons:

Great performance with static site generation.Every time a change needs to be made, it has to go through the build process.
GraphQL for efficient data management.More complex configuration compared to simpler frameworks
Rich plugin ecosystem.Limited support for Server-side Rendering compared to other frameworks
SEO-friendly architecture.

A few popular websites using Gatsby in production:


GitHub Link: Remix

JaveScript Framework - Remix

Remix is a JavaScript framework on top of React that combines server-side rendering and client-side hydration to provide a unified development experience for building web applications.

Remix simplifies the development of server-rendered React applications by enabling developers to write client and server code in the same file. It also provides a unified routing system, routes and their associated server-side logic can be defined within the same file as the React components. Remix boosts developer productivity and has good code organization.

Some of the key features of Remix are as follows:

Server Components - Remix enables developers to build server-rendered React applications, there is no client-side state.

Nested Routes - Remix enables developers to load data specific to each route on the server, thereby reducing the loading time and enhancing user experience.

Built-in session management - Remix includes built-in support for managing user sessions and authentication, simplifying common security concerns.

Pros and cons:

Ability to build full stack applications without a separate backend server and codebaseAs of now it only supports server-side rendering.
Nested routes, parallel data fetching, and smaller client-side bundle sizes, all make a Remix app performant.Not having a client-side state limits the capabilities of your application. For instance, you cannot build real-time applications like stock broking platforms with Remix.
In-built support for sessions and cookiesThe number of requests to the database will be generally more compared to other frameworks

A few popular websites using Remix in production:


GitHub Link: Vue

JaveScript Framework - Vue

Vue is a progressive JavaScript framework for building user interfaces. Just like React, Vue.js builds on top of HTML, CSS, JavaScript and uses a virtual DOM.

Vue empowers developers to create declarative user interfaces using components. Vue.js is flexible, incrementally adoptable, and can be used in a variety of ways to develop efficient and scalable frontend web applications.

Some of the key features of Vue.js are as follows:

Single File Components - Vue Single-File Components (.vue file) is a special file format that allows us to encapsulate the markup, logic, and styling in a single file.

Declarative Components - Vue provides a template syntax on top of standard HTML that allows us to declaratively describe HTML output based on JavaScript state.

Reactivity - Vue automatically tracks JavaScript state changes and updates the DOM accordingly.

Directives - Vue provides a lot of built-in directives like v-if, v-on, v-for and more. These directives are very intuitive and easy to use for routine development tasks.

Pros and cons:

Lightweight syntax, intuitive concepts, and easy to learn compared to other frameworks.Vue.js is highly flexible, which might put projects developed by inexperienced developers at risk.
Incrementally adoptable, can be used in a part of an existing app or can be used to build an entire app with itLimited corporate backing when compared to React.
Well documented and supported by a large community.Not SEO Friendly, Server-side rendering is difficult to achieve without a proper framework like Nuxt.js
Solid tooling system around it, versatile and flexible for various project sizes.Due to single-file components, reusing logic becomes tricky at times. The new composition API of Vue 3 aims to solve this.

A few popular websites using Vue.js in production:


GitHub Link: Nuxt

JaveScript Framework - Nuxt

Nuxt is a free and open-source framework that allows developers to create type-safe, performant, and production-grade full-stack web applications and websites with Vue.js.

Nuxt is designed to simplify the development of server-side rendered (SSR) and static site generated (SSG) Vue.js applications. It provides a higher-level abstraction for building Vue.js applications with features like routing, server-side rendering, and automatic code splitting out of the box. In a lot of ways Nuxt.js is for Vue.js what Next.js is for React.js.

Some of the key features of Nuxt.js are as follows:

Routing - File-system based routing, we can define routes based on the structure of the pages/ directory.

Rendering - Nuxt comes with built-in SSR capabilities, so we don’t need to set up a separate server. Also, it supports other rendering strategies like SSG and hybrid rendering. Nuxt provides flexibility to choose which rendering strategy to apply at the route level.

Code splitting - Nuxt automatically splits our code into smaller chunks, which reduces the initial load time of our application.

TypeScript support - With Nuxt, we can write type-safe code out of the box without having to do any extra configurations.

Build tools - Nuxt uses Vite by default to support hot module replacement (HMR) in development and to bundle production code with best practices.

Pros and Cons:

Supports Universal and other rendering types. It also allows you to configure the rendering type at the route level.Limited flexibility compared to custom setups
File System based routingMight be an overkill for small applications.
Automatic code splitting and zero-config typescript supportSmaller community compared to Next.js or Gatsby.
Good performance and SEO Friendly

A few popular websites using Nuxt in production:


GitHub Link: Astro

JaveScript Framework - Astro

Astro is a web framework for building content-driven websites like blogs, marketing, and eCommerce using any framework of your choice like React, Vue, or Svelte.

Astro is well known for introducing a new island architecture based on partial hydration which reduces JavaScript overhead and complexity compared to other frameworks. It is highly performant and SEO friendly too.

Some of the key features of Astro are as follows:

Islands - Astro introduces the Island architecture that results in better frontend performance. It avoids monolithic JavaScript patterns and removes all unnecessary JavaScript from the page automatically.

UI-agnostic - Astro is UI-agnostic, it supports React, Preact, Vue, Svelte, Lit, Solid, and more.

Server-first - Astro advocates a Multi-Page App (MPA) approach and promotes using server-side rendering more. It advocates minimal use of client-side rendering to avoid unwanted JavaScript in the bundle to the client. This approach makes more sense for content-focused websites where first-load performance is essential.

Integrations - Astro has a wide range of integrations to choose from.

Pros and cons:

It is a good candidate for building content-driven websites.It has limitations for client-side rendering, no JavaScript running on the client, no client-side router, and more.
Lets you use other frameworks like React, Vue in the same app.Smaller community compared to other frameworks
Not suitable for building Web Applications

A few popular websites using Astro in production:


GitHub Link: Angular

JaveScript Framework - Angular

Angular is a comprehensive development platform based on TypeScript, developed and maintained by Google.

Angular is particularly useful for developing single-page frontend applications, just like React, it has a component-based framework, has many developer tools in its ecosystem like the Angular CLI which promotes code consistency and efficiency. Angular also has a wide range of well-maintained libraries that cover various features like routing, form handling, and more.

Some of the key features of Angular are as follows:

Components - Angular follows a component-based architecture. Each component defines a class that contains application data and logic and is linked to an HTML template.

Two-Way Data Binding - Angular supports two-way data binding so that changes in the DOM are reflected in the data model and vice-versa.

Dependency Injection - Angular promotes the concept of “services'' to contain your business logic. A service can be injected into any component that wants to use it. This architecture promotes code organization and enables UI components to be efficient and have limited scope.

Routing - Angular offers a powerful router module for managing navigation and state. It also supports features like route guards, lazy loading, and more.

Directives - Angular includes a rich set of directives for extending HTML with custom behavior and functionality, enabling developers to create dynamic and interactive UIs.

Testing Support - Angular comes with built-in support for testing, including unit tests, integration tests, and end-to-end (e2e) tests.

Pros and cons:

Typescript by default. Tools like angular-cli help with code organization which makes the application structure consistent across codebases.It is a complex framework and hence has a steeper learning curve when compared to other options like React or Vue.
Angular ecosystem comes with solid core features and a variety of tools that makes it easy to build large-scale applications.Angular is not lightweight, the framework size of Angular itself is far more compared to React or Vue.
Dependency Injection promotes separation of common logic away from components and keeps the components simple.Smaller community compared to React
Angular comes with built-in testing support.

A few popular websites using Angular in production: Visa Billboard NDTV


GitHub Link: Svelte

JaveScript Framework - Svelte

Svelte is an increasingly popular technology that allows you to write declarative UI components. Svelte is the pioneer in rethinking how Reactivity works in frontend engineering.

Svelte does not employ a virtual DOM approach, rather the components are compiled into small, efficient JavaScript modules. This approach results in smaller bundle sizes, less JavaScript for the clients to download, and more benefits. This way many overheads that exist in other UI frameworks are eliminated in Svelte.

Svelte components are a combination of markup, styles, and behavioural logic. Svelte is incrementally adoptable, we can build our entire app with it or we can add it incrementally to an existing codebase.

Some of the key features of Svelte are as follows:

SvelteKit - SvelteKit is the recommended way of building Svelte Applications. If you're coming from React, SvelteKit is similar to Next. On top of Svelte functionalities, SvelteKit supports other pieces we need to build a web application, routing, SSR support, deployment, and more.

Compiler-Based Approach - Svelte does not use a virtual DOM like React or Vue, instead it compiles .svelte components into pure Vanilla JS. Due to this, Svelte apps are much lighter and more efficient.

Declarative Components - A component in Svelte is a reusable block of code in a .svelte file that contains HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Svelte supports reactive declarations in the UI components.

Single-File Components - Svelte supports Single-File Components that allow us to encapsulate the template, logic, and styling in a single file.

Global Store & Animations - Svelte has out-of-the-box support for global state management and developers need not install additional libraries. Similarly, it has built-in support for creating smooth animations.

Pros and cons:

The compiler-based approach makes Svelte applications lightweight and highly performant.Smaller ecosystem, resources, and community compared to other frameworks.
Declarative UI Components with ReactivityBeing a relatively new framework, Svelte might have fewer integrations and limited tooling.
Supports TypeScript, global state management, and animations out of the boxDue to single-file components, reusing logic can become tricky.
SvelteKit provides support for all kinds of rendering mechanisms.

A few popular websites using Svelte in production:


GitHub Link: Solid

JaveScript Framework - Solid

Solid is a lightweight JavaScript framework for building user interfaces.

Solid takes inspiration and is very similar to React in many aspects except for one major fundamental change where Solid uses compiled JavaScript (just like Svelte) and updates the DOM in real-time compared to the manipulation of a Virtual DOM by React. Like all popular frameworks, Solid allows you to write declarative UI components, supports Reactivity, is highly performant, and is easy to pick up if you’re coming from React.

Some of the key features of Solid are as follows:

Declarative Components - Solid allows you to write declarative components to build user interfaces and supports JSX markup.

Reactive Primitives - Solid uses the Observer pattern and has three primary primitives to support Reactivity - Signal, Memo, and Effect.

TypeScript Support - Solid supports TypeScript out of the box.

Solid Start - Currently in beta, Solid Start is a framework on top of Solid, which is aimed to support different rendering mechanisms, nested routing, and much more.

Pros and cons:

Solid uses a compiler-based approach that makes applications lightweight and highly performant.Developers new to reactive programming will have a steeper learning curve for handling reactivity in Solid.
Solid supports writing declarative UI Components with Reactivity.Smaller ecosystem, resources, and community compared to other frameworks.
Solid has support for TypeScript, Astro, and Vite.Being a relatively new framework, Solid has fewer integrations and limited tooling.
Solid supports both client and server-side rendering.


GitHub Link: Preact

JaveScript Framework - Preact

Preact is a fast and lightweight JavaScript library for building user interfaces.

Preact as the name suggests is designed to be a drop-in replacement for React, it provides a similar API and necessary functionalities of React but comes with a smaller footprint and faster performance. Its familiar API and support for React's features like hooks and SSR make it easy for React developers to transition to Preact.

Some of the key features of Preact are as follows:

Lightweight - Preact is significantly smaller in size compared to React, making it ideal for projects where bundle size and performance are critical considerations.

Familiar API - Preact provides a similar API to React, allowing developers familiar with React to quickly pick up concepts and get started.

Virtual DOM - Preact uses a virtual DOM to handle state and DOM manipulations.

Declarative Components - Preact allows you to write declarative components to build user interfaces using JSX.

SSR and Hydration - Preact supports server-side rendering (SSR) and client-side hydration.

TypeScript Support - Preact provides first-class support for TypeScript.

Pros and cons:

High-performance, lightweight library for the clients to download.It can be trickier to develop very complex web applications with Preact and it is recommended for simple lightweight applications.
Familiar API for React developers, hooks support, and TypeScript support.It has server-side rendering support, but it’s limited to a certain extent.
Declarative UI ComponentsSmaller ecosystem, limited tooling, and community.
Server-side Rendering and hydration for SEO and performance use cases.

A few popular websites using Preact in production:


GitHub Link: Alpine

JaveScript Framework - Alpine

Alpine is a minimal JavaScript framework for building web applications. It allows developers to enhance HTML with declarative directives, this enables interactivity to the web pages without using complex JavaScript frameworks.

As their website states “Alpine is a collection of 15 attributes, 6 properties, and 2 methods”, and that’s about it. This is what makes Alpine very lightweight, easy to learn, and ideal for projects where simplicity and fast prototyping are priorities. It's particularly useful for adding interactivity to existing web pages or building simple web applications without the overhead of larger frameworks.

Some of the key features of Alpine are as follows:

Minimal - Alpine.js integrates directly into your HTML files, it does not make you architect your app in its own way. Alpine is more like a small side tool and not the core of your app like React or Vue.

Directives - Alpine.js provides directives like x-on, x-for, x-if, and more that define interactive behaviour directly within the HTML, enabling developers to render lists and tables dynamically.

Global State Management - Alpine offers global state management through the API.

Reactivity - Alpine offers reactivity with the help of Alpine.reactive() and Alpine.effect() API.

Pros and cons:

Minimalistic syntax for quick prototyping, lightweight, and easy to learn.Very limited feature set compared to larger frameworks.
Intuitive directives and reactivity support, global state management provided out of the box.Not suitable for complex applications that need to scale well and have various kinds of functionalities.
Limited tooling and community support

A few popular websites using Alpine in production:

#Backend JavaScript Frameworks


GitHub Link: Express

JaveScript Framework - Express.js

Express is a flexible and minimal web application framework on top of Node.js that provides a robust set of features for building web servers and APIs.

Some of the key features of Express.js are as follows:

Routing - Express provides a simple and intuitive routing system that allows developers to define routes for handling different HTTP requests. Routes can be defined using HTTP methods like GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, and more.

Middleware - Express supports middleware functions that have access to the request object, response object, and next function. The Express team maintains many middleware functions that can be used for tasks such as managing sessions, parsing request bodies, logging requests, authenticating users, serving static files, and more.

Express Generator - Express generator is a simple CLI that can be used to quickly scaffold and manage backend applications based on express.

Pros and cons:

Minimalist and lightweight framework.Code organization is not strict, which leads code to lose convention and structure over time.
A rich ecosystem of middleware and plugins.Lack of built-in features compared to fully loaded frameworks like NestJS
Simple and intuitive routing system.Manual configuration is required for some features.
Extensive community support and documentation.TypeScript is not native, we have to set it up on our own.
Express supports a variety of templating engines like Handlebars, EJS, and Pug.

Companies using Express.js in their stack


GitHub Link: NestJS

JaveScript Framework - NestJS

NestJS is a progressive JavaScript framework for the backend, which can be used to create efficient and scalable Node.js server-side applications.

NestJS solves the problem of architecting backend applications and allows us to create loosely coupled, scalable applications. The architecture of NestJS is heavily inspired by Angular, it comes with full TypeScript support, a dependency injection system, and a powerful CLI with various features. Behind the scenes, Nest makes use of lower-level Node.js frameworks like Express or Fastify, hence in addition to NestJS-specific features, we can use features like middleware, routing, and more that are provided by the underlying framework.

Some of the key features of NestJS are as follows:

Versatile - NestJS has a wide set of features and can be used to build different backend applications like Rest APIs, GraphQL APIs, Queues, real-time applications, microservices, and more.

Modular Architecture - NestJS applications are based on Modules, Controllers, and Services. This helps to keep code organized and maintainable.

Dependency Injection - Nest is built around a strong design pattern of dependency injection. This results in loose coupling, makes unit testing easier, and promotes code reusability.

Common Backend Operations - NestJS comes with built-in support for a lot of routine backend operations like logging, environment configuration, cron scheduling, validations, pipes, OpenAPI specification, API documentation, authentication, and many other cross-cutting concerns for which we have to install various libraries in raw Node.js / Express.js.

Nest CLI - The Nest CLI helps you to initialize, develop, and maintain your Nest applications. It assists in many ways, including scaffolding the project, serving in development, and finally building the production application.

Testing Support - NestJS comes with built-in testing utilities and supports various testing frameworks like Jest and Supertest, making it easy to write and execute unit tests, integration tests, and end-to-end tests.

Pros and Cons:

Modular Architecture and Dependency Injection facilitates code organization and loose coupling.NestJS cannot be incrementally adopted in existing codebases.
Built-in support for major backend utilities every application needs like logging, env configurations, testing, and more.For small applications and quick prototypes, NestJS can be bulky and might introduce unnecessary overheads.
Versatile and can be used to create a variety of backend applications.Developers without exposure to TypeScript or Angular will have a steeper learning curve to build features with NestJS
Powerful CLI and built-in support for testing your code.

Companies using Nest.js in their stack


GitHub Link: Meteor

JaveScript Framework - Meteor.js

Metero.js is an open source full-stack JavaScript platform that allows you to build web, mobile, and desktop applications. The most interesting thing about Meteor is that it allows you to build full-stack applications as it can power both frontend and backend in the same project.

Meteor comes with a native publish-subscribe API and the presence of a full-stack ecosystem simplifies the development of real-time applications.

Some of the key features of Meteor.js are as follows:

Full Stack Applications - Meteor allows React, Vue, Svelte, and Blaze to be used as your frontend frameworks, and the backend part is powered by Node.js.

Cross-Platform Development - Meteor allows you to develop web, mobile, and desktop applications.

Meteor CLI - Meteor has a robust CLI that can help you create projects, generate boilerplate code, run a development server, and build or deploy the application.

Packages - Meteor comes with many meteor-specific built-in packages that can be used for common operations. Atmosphere is a repository containing many community packages specially designed for Meteor.

Pros and Cons:

Use JavaScript or TypeScript to build full-stack applications in one codebase.Meteor.js can be complex for beginners as its ecosystem covers a lot of ground.
Build applications for web, mobile, and desktop from a single code base.Meteor can be a monolithic application with less flexibility for highly customizable end-to-end application setups.
Many built-in packages and integrations specially designed for MeteorMeteor follows data on the wire and supports client-side rendering for the frontend, other types of rendering are natively not supported.
Powerful CLI, built-in support for testing, and good documentation.Meteor.js cannot be incrementally adopted in existing codebases, it needs to be a standalone application.

Companies using Meteor in their stack

Blog Author

Aagam Vadecha

Aagam Vadecha

As a Software Engineer, my daily routine revolves around writing scalable applications with clean code & maintaining them. In my spare time, I love to explore software architecture patterns, write tech articles & watch thrillers!

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